UNHEALTHY COMMUNITY AND ENVINROMENT: SAVE OUR COMMUNITY AFRICA
People have likely been altering their native environments since arriving within the scene as a definite species a number of hundred thousand years in the past. Our debut as main actors on the worldwide stage – actors comparable in affect to the basic roles performed by erosion, volcanism, pure choice, and the like- is a way more latest phenomenon. This dates again at most a number of thousand years, however has accelerated tremendously in scope and affect during the last a number of centuries. In keeping with Crutzen (2002) ” We dwell right now in what could also be known as the “Anthropocene” – a brand new geologic epoch wherein human type has emerged as a globally vital – and doubtlessly clever – power able to reshaping the face of the planet”. The Italian geologist Anthonio Stoppani (1873) was describing humanity’s actions as a “new telluric power, which in energy and universality could also be in comparison with the larger forces of the Earth”. A number of worldwide conferences have been held to deal with environmental issues. Examples are, UN convention on Surroundings and Growth (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro Brazil, 1992, World summit on Sustainable Growth, held in Johannesburg in 2002, and so on. The necessity for harnessing science and expertise in help of efforts to realize the aim of environmentally sustainable human improvement within the Anthropocene was usually acknowledged on the Johannesburg Summit. Environmental hazards are up to date concern in Africa however earlier than I delve into the causes of the issues and a few options, I might give some definitions and options of atmosphere. I shall additionally use Nigeria (an African Nation) as a case examine due to the constraints of the work.
DEFINITIONS AND FEATURES OF ENVIRONMENT
The unlucky older, flawed and simplistic definition of atmosphere is that it’s the useful resource that was created for human use. It’s that mechanical facet that exists to serve human beings. This definition is unlucky and flawed for it defined atmosphere as one thing inanimate; one thing in at that exists solely for human recreation pleasures and wishes. The background to this definition contains the anthropological, spiritual, psychological, financial and philosophical explanations of the origin and nature of the atmosphere. Surroundings can also be outlined because the pure wherein individuals, animals and crops dwell. Uchebu (1998) categorized the atmosphere into bodily and non-physical. The bodily atmosphere contains land (Terrestrial) Air, Water (Acquatic) environments and non-physical – cultural and socio- financial atmosphere. The atmosphere subsequently capabilities in keeping with Kankwenda (2001) as:
(1) A supply of uncooked supplies and vitality (non – renewable sources);
(2) A supplier of providers corresponding to upkeep of climatic system/stability and ecological cycle (renewable sources) together with forest, agriculture land, water and so on;
(3) And a sink for waste.
Environmental issues are concerning the central concern of the 20 th and twenty-first (twentieth -Twenty first ) centuries. It’s because the hazards, that are contained in it, are as deep and grave as they’re lengthy lasting in its impact to MAN and the eco-system itself. In keeping with the “Awake” journal, mankind is presently sitting on a time-bomb on account of environmental results both in type of weaponry and/or pollutions and hazards corresponding to flooding, drought, soil erosion, deforestation, volcanity, earthquakes, radio-chemical hazards and so on.
Nigeria as a nation encompasses a number of local weather which requires and sraddles numerous physiographic items. There are numerous ecological zones starting from Sahel Savanna, Sudan Savanna and Guinea Savanna by means of Rain forest to Mangroves and Swamp forests. The varied ecological zones reply in another way to the impression of human actions by advantage of their pure stress response capabilities and inherent carry capabilities. The Sahelian Savanna is extremely inclined to desertification; the Sudan Savanna can barely deal with human pressures emanating from quickly rising populations, gasoline woods, harvesting and cattle grazing. The Guinea zone is ordinarily subjected to pressures as a pure buffer between the encroaching desert and the forest belt. The Rain forest belt is beneath extreme stress by means of poor regulation and over-exploitation of forest merchandise and different financial actions that end in clearing of huge space of land. Compounding this, particularly within the Niger Delta space, is the massive scale exploration, exploitation and processing actions by the petroleum business, which have left their impression by means of crude oil and petroleum product spillages, fuel flaring – associated issues, land degradation and depletion of farm lands, water air pollution and deterioration of essential habitats for fish inventory. Prevalence of soil and gully erosion, particularly within the japanese a part of Nigeria, flooding within the low mendacity belt of mangrove and recent water swamps, and uncontrolled logging with its inherent issues of destruction and lack of bio-diversity have immensely contributed in the direction of additional exacerbation of the deteriorating environmental situation.
The above are the assorted causes and results of environmental hazards in Nigeria. However there are main noticeable modifications within the atmosphere because of human stress on it. These embody viz
(1) Lack of biodiversity leading to diminished number of genetic strains, species and ecosystems, depletion and extinction of species and so on.
(2) Growing charge of soil degradation and desertification in addition to air and water air pollution.
(3) Improve in inexperienced homes gases which are anticipated to result in a rise within the imply international temperature of 200 to 500C.(International Warming)
(4) Huge launch of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the stratosphere leading to rising ultraviolet radiation from the solar as a result of depletion of ozone layer
PROGNOSIS FOR THE FUTURE
The prognosis for continued and sustainable enhancements in human properly being on a remodeled atmosphere is, at greatest, guarded. The 2 broad causes of environmental hazards are the industrially triggered environmental air pollution and the wasteful non-public consumption by complete inhabitants dwelling beneath trendy city circumstances. Whereas the previous evil is completed by a really restricted variety of humanity, the latter is perpetrated by the entire humanity whose greed has been fired by promoting following the economic age to wish to have an increasing number of issues and wastes the sources of nature. Consequently, whereas political rules, legal guidelines, civil actions/stress teams can power industries to safeguard the atmosphere. Such coercive and institutional measures can not work for the air pollution by the entire citizenry. Relatively a change of angle and motion in the direction of environmental sustainability can be based mostly on the voluntary motion of people. As a result of no matter impacts and pollutes the atmosphere can also be of impact to us. I subsequently canvass for an method or relation between man and atmosphere known as “Ecocentrism”. The spirit behind this method is to posit that atmosphere is definitely animate within the sense of being alive. It’s subsequently flawed to interpret atmosphere as inert or inanimate.
Thus, the sensible means ahead for man to verify environmental air pollution and hazards in keeping with Chigbo Joseph are viz
– Restrict consumption of sources to a minimal and devise methods to make use of waste merchandise in manufacturing.
– Making most use of the bodily vitality of the human physique as a way to preserve larger human well being.
– Warning on use of the artificials components to meals and different chemical merchandise and remember that hurt nearly invariably accompanies no matter good these substances do.
– Scientists and technologists to be ethically/humbly centered of their analysis and manufacturing
– Leaders to be imbued with the consciousness of saving man and the planet earth of their choices.
Along with the above, there needs to be institution of regulatory businesses with various powers to watch and successfully management the sources of pollution. Instance is FEPA – Federal Environmental Safety Company/Federal Ministry of Surroundings.
In a nutshell, the atmosphere is a fancy and delicate system which (I) if correctly managed it may be geared to productive and home aesthetic and even non secular necessities (ii) when poorly managed, the atmosphere may simply change into hazardous and threatening to human survival.